Fitnah Takfeer and Usool ut-Takfeer
All praises are due to Allah, we praise Him, we seek His aid and we ask Him for forgiveness, we take refuge unto Allah against the evils in ourselves and against the badness of our deeds. Those whom Allah has guided no other creature will lead them astray and those whom Allah has misguided no one will guide. I testify that there is no God except Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the slave and Messenger of Allah.
Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith; but such as open their breasts to disbelief, on them is wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a great torment. [al-Nahal: 106]
Nowadays a Fitnah has risen in our societies, which we know as “Fitnah Takfeer”; and the people who are involved in this Fitnah do specified (Mu’ayyin) Takfeer of all those people among whom a nuance or an aspect of Absolute Takfeer is found. For example, if a man said a word of Kufr, he would immediately be declared a Kaafir; or for example, a man joined such a group upon which a general ruling of Kufr has been issued e.g: There is a group which helps the Kuffar, and a person is part of that Group, so these people will issue the Fatwa of Takfeer upon every single member of this group or Jama’ah, thus they’d consider his wealth to be permissible upon them, consider his blood and honor to be legal, and besides, they won’t agree to pray behind that person, and he’d be considered to be totally outside of the pale of Islaam.
Whereas, declaring someone as Kaafir or Muslim is actually a huge responsibility. Declaring someone a kaafir means that you are making his blood, honor, and wealth to be halaal upon you, meaning all this is halaal and mubaah for us, and it has become permissible to do qatal-o-qitaal against him. This is the meaning of declaring a person to be Kaafir!
If that person is really deserving of that takfeer then the one doing his takfeer is upon haqq. And if he is not deserving to be declared Kaafir then the one who declares him Kaafir himself becomes Kaafir (Evidences will be given ahead, in-sha-allah), because this person has intervened in the right of Allah. It was not his right to declare a person to be Kaafir. He is declaring someone to be Halaal ud-Damm, or considering his wealth to be permissible for the Muslims, in short, he is declaring something to be permissible which Allah has not made permissible.
Declaring a specified person to be Kaafir is a very grave sin. It denotes that Allah declared something to be Haraam and he is declaring it to be Halaal. Allah has declared the blood, Honor, and wealth of a Muslim to be Haraam and honourable, while he is saying, ‘No, his life and wealth is permissible’. It should be remembered that Allah, in the Quraan, and the Leader of the Prophets, Muhammad (peace be upon him) have laid some conditions for the Absolute Takfeer. For example, the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “If anyone abandons Salaah intentionally is a Kaafir”. But then for example: Haaji Fazal Kareem did not perform the prayer of Asr today, neither of Maghrib, nor of Isha, so will that Haaji Fazal Kareem become Kaafir? Declaring this specified person, while taking his name, to be Kaafir will need many conditions and principles to be fulfilled.
There are many Conditions for it, which will have to be considered. A specified person will only be declared Kaafir by taking those conditions under consideration. Saying something Kufriya regarding Allah such as: “I do not Believe in Allah”, so will that person become Kaafir by saying this? Well, he has disbelieved from his apparent wording. We will say Mutlaqan (generally) that the one who said the word of Kufr does not believe in Allah. He was a Muslim, Mu’min, and Tawheed was present in him, but now he has become Kaafir by saying these words?
We will need some Conditions and principles for this, which Allah has mentioned in the Quraan, and the Messenger in the ahadeeth. Let’s take, for example, Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal, he spent a part of his life with those who called towards the view of Khalq Quraan (Creation of Quraan), and negated the attributes of Allah, and they put all the Scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah wal Jama’ah on trials and difficulties, and they also gave hard times to the people of Emaan, and made the Mu’min Men and Women to be a target of their injustice, and similarly they deprived them from their positions. But despite all this, Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal prayed for that same Abbasi Caliph, and for those who beat him up, and imprisoned him, and he prayed for their forgiveness too. Whereas, it is not permissible to do Astaghfaar for a Kaafir, which means he did not declare a specified member of Jahmiyah to be Kaafir, because If a Mu’ayyin person were to be declared Kaafir, it would be done only when the conditions of Takfeer are found in that person, and a General Takfeer is like a warning, as Allah says: “And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then Verily, for him is the Fire of Hell, he shall dwell therein forever.” [Al-Jinn: 23]
Now, isn’t lying a disobedience of Allah? Will the one who lies dwell in Hell forever? No one says that the one who lies is going to dwell in hell forever, except the Kharijites. Khariji declare those to be Kaafir who commit major sins. They declare them Murtad, according to this principle of theirs.
Now, this verse of the Quraan that: “whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then Verily, for him is the Fire of Hell, he shall dwell therein forever.” It also includes the Minor Sins, so that means the one who commits minor sins will also dwell in Hell forever, but no one declares him to be an Abdi Jannami, Why?
Whatever answer you think of this argument in your mind, use that same answer to differentiate between Takfeer Mu’ayyin and Takfeer Mutlaq. Meaning, Allah has said Mutlaqan, here, that anyone who disobeys is going to dwell in hell forever and ever. He has used both the words “Khaalideen” and “Abadan”. Some people say that some people have involved in the killing of Muslims therefore they became Abdi Jahannami (Dweller of hell forever), and they use the verse as evidence where Allah has said: “And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein forever (Khalidan); and the Wrath and the Curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him.” [An-Nisaa: 93], so here, Allah has only said the word “Khaalidan” (due to which these people presumed him to be a Abdi Jahannami), but with regards to disobeying in the verse above, he has said: “Khalideen”, and “Abadan” too. He used two words of reminder that the disobeyer is going to dwell in hell forever and ever. Whereas he only used one word for the Murderer, so the ruling which you put on Murderer, should also be sticked to merely disobeying (which includes Major and Minor sins alike).
Anyway, I am trying to say that the ordinances of Mutlaq Takfeer that Allah, in Quraan, and the Messenger (peace be upon him) in his sayings, have laid down, hold the position of warning, just as it is said that a person will dwell in Hell forever and ever whether it be Minor or Major sins. This is merely a Warning. But if a major or a Minor sin is committed by a Specific (Mu’ayyin) person, will he always be included in this warning, or not? Then we will look for all those conditions in him and know whether he fulfills the conditions of Khulood fi an-Naar or not? Then we will judge. Similarly, The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever abandons the obligatory prayer intentionally has done Kufr”, and Allah has said in the Quraan that: “But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then are they your brethren in religion.” [At-Taubah: 11]. Now if some person rejects the Prayer, or doesn’t give the Obligatory Charity then the Fatwa of Apostasy will not be put on him until when the conditions are fulfilled and all the barriers are removed.
The Conditions for Takfeer Mu’ayyin
There are some conditions to put a Fatwa of Kufr upon a Specific (Mu’ayyin) Muslim person. The very first condition is that he should be aware of that act. He should have knowledge that this act is Kufr, as the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever goes to a fortune-teller and believes what he says, has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammad” [Jaami Tirmidhi: H. 531]
Now, if a man does not know that practicing magic and having it done is Kufr, and he gets involved in this act, we would not put the Fatwa of Kufr upon him until the Hujjah is established upon him. We will inform him that Allah and his Messenger (peace be upon him) have declared this act to be an Act of Kufr. And when after his unawareness is gone, then all the other barriers will also have to be resolved. So the first condition is that he should be aware of his act, and if he is not aware of it then he is not held accountable, because the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Allah has pardoned my ummah for mistakes, what they forget what they are forced to do.” [Sunan Ibn Majah 3402]
If a man commits an act mistakenly due to his ignorance, then Allah forgives him, we cannot put the fatwa of Kufr upon him in this dunya, until when his ignorance goes away.
The second condition is that he must have done that act (of Kufr) intentionally, and not by Mistake.
So the first thing is that he should be aware of this act; secondly, he must do this act intentionally, for example: He says: I know that making fun of the Ayaat of Allah is Kufr, and still he makes fun of them intentionally. But if he does it mistakenly then:
“Allah has pardoned my ummah for mistakes, what they forget what they are forced to do.” [Sunan Ibn Majah 3402]
The Third condition is that the person must be doing it willingly with his own will and power. If someone tells him to say a word of Kufr otherwise he will beat him up, then if he says something blasphemous or does an act of Kufr due to the fear of being compelled and oppressed, then he will not be considered a Kaafir, because Allah The Exalted has said: “Whoever disbelieved in Allah after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith; but such as open their breasts to disbelief, on them is wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a great torment.” [Al-Nahl: 106]
Meaning, if someone says or commits an act of Kufr intentionally with his own will, without any compulsion, then Allah says, he is held accountable. But if he commits an act of Kufr due to the fear of something or someone, then he is not to be held accountable. It should be remembered, here, that if an act of Kufr has to be done in case of threat to the life, then that person has the leave to say the word of Kufr, or commit an act of Kufr; but the greater thing in that condition too, is that he should not say this word of Kufr, and remain firm, this is better. But even if he says a word of Kufr then Allah will not hold him accountable, because Allah has said: “except him who is forced thereto” [Al-Nahl: 106]
So the one who is forced to do an act of Kufr, in order to save his life, then that man will not be declared Kaafir. For example: If some Kuffar caught a man and they tell him to help them otherwise they will kill him, now if he helps them to save his life, he is being forced, so the fatwa of Kufr will not be put on him. Allah The Exalted has declared him an exception, and same is the issue with Shirk, because Shirk is also Kufr.
Mawaani’ (Barriers of) Takfeer:
These were the three conditions that: the man must be aware of that thing’s worthiness, he needs to be aware that this thing is Mukaffar, this wording is blasphemous or this action is blasphemous. He should be aware that, by committing such action, or by saying such words, he will get out of the pale of Islaam.
The second condition was that he commits this action in corroboration of the willful intent.
The Third condition was that he commits this action intentionally and without any pressure.
And similarly, there are some barriers, which if found, a person cannot be declared a Kaafir.
The First Barrior:
The very first barrier is ignorance (Jahaalat). If someone has committed an action based on ignorance, then he cannot be declared a Kaafir. Let’s take, for example, Murjiah, they have spread so many fabrications regarding the religion of Islaam that it surprises us. It has been inculcated in the mind of people that they think whether you perform prayer, or don’t, once you have said the Kalimah, you have become a complete Muslim. These people are Jaahil, they don’t know that if they don’t perform the five daily prayers of day and night, they will get out of the pale of Islaam. They say that there is nothing wrong even if you don’t perform Salaah, because you are Muslim since you have read the Kalimah.
If his ignorance is gone but he still persists on his practice, then he is no more excused. Similarly, the Prophet (peace be upon him) has said regarding this Jahaalat that: “Allah has pardoned my ummah for mistakes, what they forget what they are forced to do.” Meaning if a person commits an act of Kufr due to ignorance or mistake then he will not be held responsible for this.
And similarly, that hadeeth should also be reminded which says that A man used to do sinful deeds, and when death came to him, he said to his sons, 'After my death, burn me and then crush me, and scatter the powder in the river. Why did he say that? Because he said:
‘For by Allah, if Allah has control over me, He will give me such a punishment as He has never given to anyone else.' Therefore, you burn me, turn me into powder, and scatter it into the river, so that Allah will not gather and resurrect me again. Meaning this was his view. And this view of his was certainly invalid. This view of his that Allah cannot raise him is a blasphemous Aqeedah. Because Allah can raise him no matter in what shape or form he becomes. But why did he say this? He said this in fear of Allah. He did not know what he is saying due to his ignorance, but Allah the Exalted pardoned him. [See: Saheeh Bukhaari: Kitaab al-Anbiyah: 1843, 8743]
Now, look what this man is doing in his ignorance, he thinks that Allah cannot raise him up. But Allah raised him up and asked him “What made you do what you did?”, so that person said: “Oh My Lord! I was afraid of you”, so Allah The Exalted took him under his Rahmah and pardoned him. Look at this, he committed a blasphemous action, but he did this due to ignorance, so Allah The Exalted considered his ignorance as an excuse and took this Mu’ayyin (Specific) person around his mercy.
The Second Barrier:
The second barrier is that he should not be a Mutawwil (one who does Taweel). Meaning the person who is doing a Kufriyah action or saying a Kufriyah word might have a proof from Quraan or Hadeeth and he considers it permissible for himself. He might start doing a Kufriyah action by taking evidence from a verse of the Quraan or Hadeeth. That Hadeeth might even be Da’eef but he considers it to be Saheeh, and he takes the ruling from that Hadeeth and starts acting on a Kufriyah action. It’s possible that he might not be able to do correct Ta’weel of Quraan and Hadeeth, or could not understand the tafseer correctly. He used his Ijtihaad and got it wrong and started doing a Kufriyah action and started saying Kufriyah words. Now will that person be considered a Kaafir? Absolutely Not!
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “When the judge issues a ruling, if he strives to work it out (ajtahada) and gets it right, he will have two rewards, and if he issues a ruling and strives to work it out but gets it wrong, he will have one reward.” [Saheeh Bukhaari: Kitaab al-I’tisaam H. 2537]
If a man does Ijtihaad and ends up committing a Kufriyah action, he should at least be given one reward, while this Jama’at ut-Takfeer of ours is firmly determined over declaring them Kaafir. Whereas our Prophet (peace be upon him) is saying that he is getting one reward because of his Ijtihaadi Mistake. Meaning if a person commits a Kufriyah action or says a Kufriyah word, and he has some proofs from Quraan and Hadeeth to back that Kufriyah action or word, which he could not understand correctly and he got mistaken in doing Istinbaat and Istikhraaj from those proofs, and as a result he fall into misguidance then, we cannot declare this Mu’ayyin person, who is misled due to his Ijtihaadi Mistake and who has a Ta’weel, to be a Kaafir. Leave aside declaring him a Kaafir, we cannot even declare him a Faasiq, because that poor person has deducted the ruling from Quraan or from Hadeeth, and he simply wants to do the Ittiba of Allah and his Messenger (peace be upon him) by taking out that ruling. He has taken out a Masla from Quran and Hadeeth in order to follow Allah and his Beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). He is keen to do Ittiba but has slipped from the right path. He does not even become a Faasiq, but here he is being declared a Kaafir. And see what Allah The Most High says in his Quran: “Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!” [Nisaa: 10]
Meaning unjustly eating up the property of orphans became Haraam, and what is said to the one who eats up their property unjustly, that he will be put in the hell fire, so will he be the Abdi Jahannami (stay in hell forever and ever)? No, This is just a warning so that person might repent, or it’s possible that he might be the one who makes some ta’weel in it, e.g. he says that his father used to unjustly eat up my property so I am now taking his revenge, and by thinking that, he starts eating up their property, saying that I will show him how it feels to eat up the property of someone? Or it’s possible that he has recently become a Muslim and he does not know most of the rulings of Islaam. When the Sahabah asked Prophet (peace be upon him) to make for them a Dhaat w Anwaat as it was made for the Mushrikeen, so the Prophet (peace be upon him) got angry and taught them politely, he did not say to them that by saying this you are demanding Shirk, you have become Murtad, go away from here, this will not be done, no, he did not say such thing. [See: Jaami at-Tirmidhi: Abwaab al-Fitan 812]
Similarly, when Mu’adh bin Jabal came from Sham, he prostrated to the Prophet (peace be upon him), who said:What is this, O Mu’âdh, He said: I went to Sham and saw them prostrating to their bishops and patricians (i.e. aristocrats), and I wanted to do that for you.’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) did not put the Fatwa of Kufr upon Mu’aadh (radiallah anhu). But rather he said: ‘No, Do not do that. If I were to command anyone to prostrate to anyone other than Allah, I would have commanded women to prostrate to their husbands.’ [Sunan Ibn Majah: Kitaab an-Nikaah H. 3581]
Meaning there is nothing wrong if a person does it in ignorance or by Mistake. And Allah the Exalted has also said in the Quraan that: “And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake , except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend.”
So the one who is Mutawwil, is also making a Mistake. He made a mistake in doing Ta’weel, or Tafseer. It is not at all permissible to declare him a Kaafir.
And it should also be remembered that if there is a person who makes ta’weel, and the daleel reached this muta’wwil that what you are doing is wrong, or you have been mistaken etc. But the Muta’wwil does not understand that what he is doing is Kufr, and he has doubts in his heart, he cannot be declared a Kaafir even then. Because Allah the Most High says: “And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake , except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend.” [Ahzab: 5]
This person is Mistaken, he is not doing it deliberately, he is doing it while thinking it to be permissible. Allah the Most High says: “Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope.” [Al-Baqarah: 286]
Now the thought, understanding, and the mind of this person is stuck in one thing, it does not go beyond where it is right now. Allah did not give him that much understanding or mind that he would understand the truth. This person is Marfoo’ ul-Qalam in the matters beyond his understanding.
The acts or words first need to be proven as Kufr:
For the takfeer of a Mu’ayyin person, it should first be proven whether the word or an action that the person is committing really comes under the title of Kufr or not?
This is also one of the biggest problems that an action is neither Kufriyah nor Shirkiyah, but the people say that it is Kufr, Shirk, and Bid’ah, whereas it is not at all Kufriyah, Shirkiyah, or Bid’ah. So we first need the evidences of Quraan and Hadeeth in proving that the action is really Kufr in absolute sense. So if that action or word is proven to be Kufr, then the one who has said that word or committed that action will be observed and it will be seen whether that person fulfil all the conditions of Takfeer:
Was he aware that this act is an act of Kufr?, Did he do this deliberately and intentionally?, Did he do this without any pressure or force?, Does he fulfill all these conditions?, Is there any barrier from the barriers?, He should not be a Jaahil. It should not be that we declare him a Kaafir and put all the rulings of a Kaafir upon him, and take him completely out of the pale of Islaam, but he comes out to be an ignorant person who did not know what he is doing, Is he a Jaahil? Meaning there should not be Jahaalat or any Ta’weel involved. All these conditions should be found in him. Only then a Mu’ayyin person can be declared a Kaafir, and not otherwise.
Warning on doing Takfeer:
It should be noted that there is a clear hadeeth present in Bukhaari (5406) and Muslim (16) narrated by Abu Dhar (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “If somebody accuses another of Fusuq (by calling him 'Fasiq' i.e. a wicked person) or accuses him of Kufr, such an accusation will revert to him (i.e. the accuser) if his companion (the accused) is innocent.”
Meaning if a person declares another Muslim to be Kaafir or Faasiq, if that person is really as he described (a Kafir and Fasiq) then it is correct, but if he is not a Kaafir or Faasiq then the person saying it himself becomes a Kaafir and Faasiq.
So it is not a small and easy thing to say that so-and-so is a Kaafir, so-and-so is a Kaafir. It is not an easy task to declare a Mu’ayyin (Specific) person to be Kaafir. Rather it’s a huge and dangerous thing to do.
And there is a hadeeth where Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying that: “There were two men among Banu Isra'il, who were striving for the same goal. One of them would commit sin and the other would strive to do his best in the world. The man who exerted himself in worship continued to see the other in sin.
He would say: Refrain from it. One day he found him in sin and said to him: Refrain from it.
He said: Leave me alone with my Lord. Have you been sent as a watchman over me? He said: I swear by Allah, Allah will not forgive you, nor will he admit you to Paradise. Then their souls were taken back (by Allah), and they met together with the Lord of the worlds.
He (Allah) said to this man who had striven hard in worship; Had you knowledge about Me or had you power over that which I had in My hand? He said to the man who sinned: Go and enter Paradise by My mercy. He said about the other: Take him to Hell.
Abu Hurayrah said: By Him in Whose hand my soul is, he spoke a word by which this world and the next world of his were destroyed”. (Meaning he said that you will never enter paradise, and Allah will not forgive you, this saying of his destroyed both his worlds, he said this about him without any knowledge).
[Sunan Abu Dawood: Kitaab al-Adab, H. 4901, Saheeh Ibn Hibban: 2175, Musnad Ahmed 8992, and it also has a Shaahid in Saheeh Muslim, Authentic by Al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood]
And what is the meaning of declaring someone a Kaafir? It is the same as saying that you will never enter into paradise. If he dies in this condition, Allah will never forgive him. This is the meaning of declaring a Mu’ayyin (Specific) person to be a Kaafir. The words of Saheeh Muslim (2621) are that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “A man said that Allah will not forgive such and such person, thereupon Allah the Exalted and Glorious said: ‘Who is he to say about Me that I would not grant pardon to so and so; I have granted pardon to so and so and destroyed his deeds (who took an oath that I would not grant pardon to him).’”
So this is a very dangerous thing to say.
The example of the People of Irjaa (Murjiah):
On the other side, there is also a group who says no matter what you do, you are a complete Muslim, because since you have read the Kalimah you cannot become Kaafir. This group is the group of Murjiah, it is in the other extreme side, opposite to the group of Takfeeris. It is also important to know this group. This is also one of the biggest Fitnahs, according to which no matter what you do, you will remain Muslim because you read the Kalimah. If you perform Salaah or not, Give Zakaah or not, Observe the Fasts of Ramadaan or not, Go to the pilgrimage despite having the power or not, Practice magic, or have it done, in all conditions you are a Complete Muslim because you have read the Kalimah. This is the group of Murjiah in opposition to the group of Takfeeris. It also needs to be recognized. They say that a person cannot become a Murtad after becoming a Muslim. This is the Aqeedah of Murjiah which says that Eemaan only constitutes affirming it in the heart and declaring it by the tongue. Actions are not included in it. If you see these so-called “Peers” or “Malangs” wandering around in the streets, and if you ask them about Prayer, they would say we have read it, if you ask them about Fasting, they would say, we have observed it. This is the Aqeedah of Irjaa which says that there is no need of doing all this.
The Correct Aqeedah of Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah:
The Aqeedah of Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah is that Eemaan is the name of affirming it by Heart, Tongue, and Actions, and that the Emaan also increases and decreases. Therefore, we should also stay away from Irjaa. We should believe that the person who does not pray is a Kaafir, the one who abandons Zakaah is a Kaafir, the one who rejects fasting is a Kaafir, the one who does not do Hajj despite having the power is a Kaafir, the one who practice magic or has it done is a Kaafir, the mocker of the verses of Allah is a Kaafir, the one who helps Kuffar against Muslims is a Kaafir. BUT in order to do the Takfeer of a Mu’ayyin (Specific) person, we will need to consider the Conditions and Barriers of Takfeer. We will only do the general or Absolute Takfeer.
Example of La’nah (Curse):
Now, the issue of cursing is also similar to the issue of takfeer. The Prophet (peace be upon him) has cursed the one who drinks Alcohol, in fact he has cursed ten types of people who deal with Alcohol by taking their names. There is a Hadeeth present in Saheeh Bukhaari which says that: “During the lifetime of the Prophet there was a man called 'Abdullah whose nickname was Donkey, and he used to make Allah's Apostle laugh. The Prophet lashed him because of drinking (alcohol). And one-day he was brought to the Prophet on the same charge and was lashed. On that, a man among the people said, "May Allah curse him ! How frequently he has been brought (to the Prophet on such a charge)!" The Prophet said, "Do not curse him, for by Allah, I know for he loves Allah and His Apostle." [Saheeh Bukhaari: Kitaab al-Hudood: H. 1698] Subhanallah!
Look! At one time he (peace be upon him) is generally cursing ten people who deal with Alcohol: The one drinks it, the one who serves it, the one who makes it, the one who gets it to be made, the one who carries it etc. But when it came to cursing a Mu’ayyin (Specific) individual by taking his name, he immediately stopped him from doing that.
It’s permissible to do both Mu’ayyin and Mutlaq (Absolute-General) takfeer:
We do takfeer Mutlaqan and this is the aqeedah of Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama’ah. It is the Usool and Manhaaj of Ahl us-Sunnah that we do takfeer on all those and in all the places where the ruling of Takfeer has come. We do their general takfeer. But if that Kufriyah act is found in a Mu’ayyin (Specific) person then we won’t do his Takfeer. This does not mean that we should not do takfeer Mu’ayyin at all. No! We will certainly do takfer mu’ayyin, but onlt when all the conditions of takfeer are fulfilled and their remains no barrier in between.
Takfeer Mu’ayyin cannot be done by an Ordinary (Lay) Person:
The Scholars of Ahl ul-Hadeeth had also issued the fatwa of Kufr, Irtidaad, and being totally out of the fold of Islaam, upon Mirza Ghulaam Ahmed Qaadiyaani. But when did they do it? They did this only when they repeatedly established hujjah (proof) upon him, and fulfilled all the conditions of takfeer, and when there remained no barrier, then they issued the fatwa of being a Kaafir upon him.
But this is not the job of any Tom Dick and Harry. This is the task of the people of knowledge, it is only them who can do this job. It is not the job of a Lay person to engage in any false conversation about the verses of Allah, and declare a Mu’ayyin person to be Kaafir. And Allah the Most High has said: “And when you (Muhammad Õáì Çááå Úáíå æÓáã) see those who engage in a false conversation about Our Verses (of the Qur'an) by mocking at them, stay away from them till they turn to another topic. And if Shaitan (Satan) causes you to forget, then after the remembrance sit not you in the company of those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers).” [Al-An’aam: 68]
So therefore, this task should be restricted only to those who are well educated. The work suits in the hands of the one skilled to do it!
And as for the people who give the fatwa of Kufr! Subhanallah
They say: Fulan is a Kaafir, Fulaan is a Kaafir, that Fulaan is also a Kaafir. And if you ask them any masla about taharat, the issues of Wudoo, should we wash our feet with the right hand or the left etc. They will not be able to answer even these kind of questions. Most of them won’t even know which finger to use in wiping between each of the toes of the foot. They don’t know the correct way of Ghusl, they don’t even understand the issues of Ibaadah, but here they are firing people with the gun of takfeer, which is one of the most dangerous issues of Aqeedah. They are repeating their wird of Kufr, Kufr, Kufr, Kaafir, Kaafir again and again. They should fear Allah The Exalted The Most High.
And on the other side, the group of Murjiah is even bigger calamity than these Takfeeris. Irjaa is even a bigger disaster than Takfeer. Since the time these Murjiah type of minds have originated, most of the people have become evil-doers. There used to be a beautiful time when people used to say that a man is Ahl ul-Hadeeth and does not perform prayer, it is impossible. Now if you see, these so-called Ahl ul-Hadeeth are getting away from Prayer, Why? It is because all their minds have turned towards Irjaa. No matter you pray or not, it’s all the same.
This Irjaa is really a bigger trouble than takfeer. Both these extremes: Irjaa and takfeer, are a Buhtaan on Allah Subhanahu wata’ala.
Allah subhanahu wata’ala says: “Say (O Muhammad Õáì Çááå Úáíå æÓáã): "(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawahish, unrighteous oppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge." [A’raad: 33]
These takfeeris don’t even know the conditions of Mutlaq and Mu’ayyin takfeer, and they do the wird of Kufr, Kufr!! Allah has made it Haraam!
What is meant by declaring someone Kaafir, it means that you are saying Allah has made that an Abdi Jahannami, and Allah will never forgive him, Allah has made his blood permissible upon Muslims. Whereas Allah did not do it. Saying things about Allah which he did not say, and attributing them to Him is such a huge crime.
Allah says regarding the Messenger (peace be upon him) that: “And if he (Muhammad Õáì Çááå Úáíå æÓáã) had forged a false saying concerning Us (Allah Ìá ÌáÇáå), We surely would have seized him by his right hand, And then We certainly would have cut off his life artery (aorta), And none of you could have withheld Us from (punishing) him. And verily, this (Qur'an) is a Reminder for the Muttaqun (the pious)” [al-Haqqah: 44-48]
Takfeer is not a small thing and neither is Irjaa’. Allah has declared going to a fortune-teller as a kufr, but this man says, no! There is nothing wrong, a man does not become Kaafir, he remains Muslim. He is, in fact, attributing a lie to Allah. He should fear Allah. Both these groups are on the wrong path. One group (Mujiah) thought that a Mu’ayyin person never be declared a Kaafir, this is wrong too. They, meaning Murjiyah, completely closed the doors of becoming a Kaafir altogether. And the second group, which is the group of Takfeeris, thought that if there is a general ruling of Kufr upon a saying or action, then every person who commits that action becomes Kaafir!!!
So both these extremes are wrong. Therefore the conclusion is that both the Takfeer and Irjaa are a huge fitnahs, totally opposite to each other.
I pray to Allah that may He grant us the understanding of Deen and the ability to act upon it. Ameen
Author: Shaikh Abu Abdur Rahmaan Muhammad Rafeeq Taahir (hafidhahullah)
Translator: Raza Hassan